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Do Buddhists do Good Things to be Rewarded? 2017-06-06T11:38:11+00:00

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Do Buddhists do Good Things to be Rewarded?

Posted on 15/10/2012

Do Buddhists do Good Things to be Rewarded?

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Thanks to the arrangements of the Hong Kong University’s Centre of Buddhist Studies Alumni Association, I had the chance to join the 12-day cultural exchange trip to Turkey. Indeed, Turkey is different from Hong Kong in many ways: it is an Islamic country while Hong Kong celebrates different religions.

The local women hide themselves in Muslim hijabs and robes while ladiesin Hong Kong are eager to wear their shorts and vests before the summer. However, amiable smiles under thick hijabs are seldom seen in Hong Kong.

During this tour, we met local friends, families, academic institutions, media and charityorganizations etc. It not only strengthened my understanding about the Turkish people, history, culture, religion and economy, but also gave me a chance to learn about their opinionsof Buddhism

We visited a local Islamic family in Istanbul and received a warm welcome in their home for dinner. The householder asked many questions on Buddhism, probably because half of our group was comprised of Buddhist monks, a rare sight in Turkey.  Through the open and sincere dialogue, the householder and our Masters both shared their views on the religions keenly and borderless.  The chat not only let us to understand others’ beliefs, but also deepened our understanding and reflection of our own belief, especially an issue raised up by the householder: “Is there any reward system in Buddhism?Do Buddhists do good deeds for the reward? ” He also quoted an example that Buddhists used their own time to spread the dharma.

The dialogue aroused a string of reflections in me:

1.                  What leads a non-Buddhist to have such an opinions about Buddhists?

2.                  Is there really any reward system that Buddhists look for?

3.                  If the answer is yes, then what is the expected reward?

4.                  If not, then comes back to the householder’s question, why does a Buddhist use his/her own time to help others? What are the driving forces behind?

My first reflection: Are there any rituals of Buddhism; such as the prostration bowsbefore the Buddha, the chanting of the sutras, and the freeing of captive animals etc, make others have such an impression on Buddhists? Or do some Buddhists themselves actually expect the merits and virtues in return?

For outsiders, they may misunderstand Buddhist rituals if they only focus on the superficial act without learning the reasons behind.  An authentic Buddhist should understand the meaning of the rituals through the principles of Buddhism.  We are not just praying soley for the purpose of praying, not just being a vegetarian solely for the purpose of being vegetarian, not just chanting solely for the purpose of chanting; but instead, the main reasons behind areto cultivateour devotion, compassion and wisdom.

It is imprudent to jump to an immediate answer to whether the Buddhists do good things for rewards or not, it depends onthat particular Buddhist’s own mind.  As each Buddhist comes from different background, age, region, school, and dharma learning; thus their knowledge on Buddhism principles differs.

We can look into the question from the fundamental need of Why we study Buddhism? Let me quote the words of Master Taixu (太虛大師), “Learning from the Buddha is our yardstick only, and our only goal is to become a Buddha.” In short, all Buddha’s teaching is to guide us towards nirvana. It is Buddhism saying that, “There are many expedient practices, but there is only one way to the Nirvana.” In order to adapt to the different capacities of sentient beings, the Lord Buddha used immeasurableteaching methods. For new beginner, the Lord Buddha said one can gain the reward of rebirth as human beings through practicing the five Percepts. One can gain the blessings from the heavens through performing the 10 good deeds. The intention of the Lord Buddha is to attract the mundane beings with conventional rewards first before guiding them to the profound wisdom of Buddhism. The teachingstarts from preventing the disciples doing willful acts, then teaches them to cultivate some wholesome seeds on the holy path step by step. The ultimate goal of the Lord Buddha is that all sentient beings can relieve from sufferings and attain nirvana.

There is a Buddhist saying: “A person at first starts to learn Buddhism wishing for good results, as their determination is not enough.” Thus, we agree that some beginners, when they preliminary learning Buddhism, may hold a functionalist and instrumentalist approach. Some come to the doors of Buddhism hoping that they can gain merits and virtues, some come for seeking answer from Buddhism when they encountered some difficulties in their daily lives.  However, with a deepened understanding of Buddhism, devotion and bodhicitta, they should have a profound knowledge and goal that Buddhism is not for the self.

Master Yan Shun (印順導師)illustrated three essences that a Buddhist should cultivate oneself: “Bodhicitta,Great Compassion (mahakaruna), and Realization of Empty nature”. Mahayana Buddhism attributesto relieve sentient beings from the sufferings, which is the highest level of the religious spirit.  Thus the Buddhist practices are not for the self-interest, but for the interest of all sentient beings. The Buddha hopes that suffering beings can also free from samsara. Thus, the practice of buddhahood is to benefit other sentient beings. Of course, the bodhisattva with the wisdom of emptiness would not cling to any phenomenon including sentient beings, merits and virtues, for so-called sentient beings,merits and virtues are emptiness too.

Then, what are the driving forces for Buddhists to do good without asking for return if everything is emptiness? In fact, any cling to the return of merits and virtues is not the right motivation. As mentioned on Abhisamayālankara 彌勒在《現觀莊嚴論, the driving forces is : “All bodhisattva practices are for the interest of others; and the purpose is to attain bodhi.” Thus, the right driving force of a true bodhisattva is to relieve others from suffering “not for the benefit of oneself, but for the benefit of all sentient beings”.

If a Buddhist cherishes the idea of a self, a person, a living being or a universal self, then that person cannot be said to be an authentic Buddhist. A true Buddhist, in practicing the bodhisattva path and enriching the bodhicitta, should detach herself from the fame, merits, returns, sentient beings… in short, any form or phenomena in his mind.  Due to the non-attachment, he or she gets the highest wisdom or attainment in return.

The Pure Land and sentient beings are mutually related.  A serene and beautiful Buddha Pure Land comprises the sentient beings; thus the bodhisattva is grateful to sentient beings for giving him/her the chance to practice Buddhahood, so that the sentient being can make offering to the Pure Land eventually. In this subtle relationship, who on earth is asking for any returns? The bodhisattva or the sentient beings?

The Diamond Sutra best illustrates the Buddhist’s right attitude: “Practicing compassion and charity without attachment is the way to reach the Highest Perfect Wisdom. ”. Due to no grasping on reward, one can get the highest rewardWe are not clinging for any phenomenal reward, but at the end, we attain something more profound and ultimate reward.  This so-called reward is for the sentient beings.   In this respect, how can we conclude that Buddhism is a reward system or not?  How can we conclude that who is benefited in this reward?Finally, I would like to quote some words from Professor Shi Weiren: “When a person objectively explains a religion (which he or she doesn’t believe in) to another believer (who doesn’t know the theory very well) he will find that he applied an objective attitude to the other’s religion as well as his own. It is because objectivity has become his or her way of thinking.”  Through an Islamic householder’s opinions on Buddhism, I can reflecton and examine my own belief in Buddhism. This is the biggest reward that I gained from this cultural exchange.

Original Chinese text: Cheng Wan Lan Louisa

Translation: Emma Bi Jia

English editing: Raymond Lam

For more articles about Interfaith Travel to Turkey

2012年9月,感恩「香港大學佛學研究中心校友會」的安排,令我有機會參加了12天的「土耳其交化交流團」。土耳其確實有很多與香港不同的地方;它是一個回教 (伊斯蘭教) 的國家,而香港是一個兼容不同信仰的地方。當地婦女上街時還要把自己藏在頭巾及長袍裡,而香港的女士夏天未到已迫不及待換上背心短褲。然而,當地婦女在頭巾及長袍包裹下展露的親切笑容,在香港卻是很少看到的。

此行接觸了當地的朋友、家庭、及一些學術、傳媒、慈善團體等,除了加深我們對土耳其的人民、歷史、文化、宗教及經濟的認識外,同時,亦從中了解他們對佛教的一些看法。

在伊斯坦堡 (Istanbul) 時,我們探訪當地一個伊斯蘭家庭,並獲他們熱情地招待到家中晚膳。可能我們的團友超過一半是出家人,也可能當地人很少機會接觸佛教徒,所以主人提出很多關於佛教的話題。當主人解釋伊斯蘭教的同時,法師們也積極回應他們對佛教的提問。誠懇的交流,打開彼此宗教之間的溝通,不僅幫助我們理解別人的信仰,同時也加深我們對本身信仰的認識及反思。尤其是主人提出其中一個問題:「佛教徒行善,例如用自己的時間去弘法,是為了回報 (Reward System) 嗎?」

這問題引起了我如下連串的反思:

(一) 是甚麼令一位非佛教徒會對佛教徒有如此看法呢?
(二) 佛教徒行善的目的真的是為了講求回報嗎?
(三) 若行善真的是為了回報的話,那麼是甚麼方面的回報呢?
(四) 若行善不是為了回報的話,正如主人的疑問,為何用自己的時間精神去幫助其他人呢?是甚麼力量推動的呢?

第(一)個反思:是否佛教的一些儀軌,例如拜佛、誦經、放生等,令主人有此想法,或者是否有些佛教徒本身也認為做佛事是為了自身求功德?

很多人對佛教儀軌,只側重在「事相」上而有所誤解。應從佛理上去了解佛教儀軌背後的意義:「我們不是為念佛而念佛,為喫素而喫素,為誦經而誦經」,而是為了信願,慈悲,智慧的進修。1

對於佛教徒做的善行是否為了回報,由於佛教徒在地域、時代、入門、根器不同,加上每個人對佛教的義理認識深淺不一,所以對此問題,不能武斷下絕對的否認或同意的定論。關鍵在於該佛教徒自己本身的心態。

行善「是」或「否」為了回報,可以回歸至我們為何學佛上來嘗試探討。引用太虛大師所言:「吾人之標準祇在『學佛』,吾人之目的只在『成佛』」2。

簡而言之,一切法門,無非為了引導我們趣向佛乘。所謂「方便有多門,歸元無二路」,佛陀為了適應眾生根器而開示不同次第的五乘修學方法;例如說持五戒,可得人乘的福報;修十善道可得天乘的福報等。佛陀的本懷,無非是「先以欲鉤牽 ,後令入佛智」。這些修行次第都是為了引導眾生從煩惱的此岸走向覺悟的彼岸,從無明的虛妄走向光明的真實,從污染的世界走向清淨的淨土,從迷執的凡愚走向解脫的聖道,最終目的,還是希望眾生「會三歸一」,趣向成佛的菩提正道。

「眾生初學是法,欲求正信,其心怯弱」3。因此,不能排除有一些初學者對佛教義理不太了解,起初是抱著求功德的心態,或者是遇到甚麼煩惱事情,成為他們接觸佛教的因緣。但是,隨著對佛教義理加深了解,明白緣起性空的道理,通過宗教的情操長養其菩提心,從初期只求一些世間福報,進而提昇至成佛的廣大願行。

印順導師曾以「菩提願,大悲心,性空慧」這三大綱要,來統攝一切學佛法門,作為菩薩所要修行的真實功德。4

大乘佛教以救度眾生離苦得樂為職志,這是宗教精神的最高表現。

任何佛事功德,都不只是為自己成佛了、自己解脱了。成佛的目的是為了眾生,希望一切眾生也能解脱成佛、離苦得樂。佛教迴向機制,可體驗出真正的佛教徒做任何事都不應求回報的精神。把自己所做的功德都迴向給眾生,使這些功德都成為眾生解脱成佛的因緣。當然,體驗空性的菩薩不會執著所謂「行善」、所謂「功德」。

佛教徒做利他的事,既然没有要求,不求回報,不求功德,那麼,背後推動行善的原動力是甚麼?如果有要求,求回報,想得到一些好處,或者是想得到一些功德,這樣都是發心不正確5,發心應該是:「發心為他利,欲正等菩提。」6。因此,一個真正有成佛意願和決心的菩薩,是本著「不為自已求安樂,但願眾生得離苦」的願力及悲心去成就利益眾生。

除了願力和菩提心外,真正的佛教徒在菩薩道的實踐上,以「應無所住而生其心」的空慧,對一切善法以無執著、無住、忘我、以不求回報的心為大眾做事,更不應為個人名聞利養而做。就是因為這顆不求回報的心,「以無所得」而得,才是最大的得著。

菩薩發願「嚴土熟生」,以化度眾生,莊嚴佛淨土;同時,菩薩感激眾生給予其行善的機會,成就佛道的因緣。在這種互為因緣,相依相待的關係中,究竟佛教是求回報耶?非求回報耶?或許,可以用「真空妙有」的「中道」來概括:「無所住」故「非有」;「以無所得」而得,故「非無」。

最後,引用史維仁教授說:「當一個人把一個他本身不信仰的宗教觀念,從客觀的角度解釋給一個有這種觀念但不清楚的人,使得他進一步理解時,他會發現:他不僅對別人的宗教用客觀的眼光來看待,而且因為這種方法已經變成他思惟的習慣,對自己的宗教也是一樣。」7。 通過其他宗教人士的觀念,從而檢視、反思自己根深蒂固的信仰,可以說是這次「文化交流之旅」賜予我最大的得著、回報。

1. 印順導師,《學佛的根本意趣》:「我們不是為念佛而念佛,為喫素而喫素,為誦經而誦經,我們是為了策發信願而念佛,長養慈悲而喫素,為了引生智慧而誦經。這是方法,目的在信願,慈悲,智慧的進修。所以真心學佛,學修菩薩行的,要從念佛中策發上求佛道,下化眾生的大願精進。從喫素放生中,長養慈悲,去做種種有益人世的福利事業。從誦經中,進一步的研求義理,引發智慧。這樣,才盡到了初方便的力用……」
2. 太虛大師:《講學與修行》,《太虛大師全書》。
3. 《大乘起信論》
4. 印順導師:《學佛三要》
5. 達真堪布:〈不求回報地付出就是回向〉
6. 彌勒菩薩:《現觀莊嚴論》(Abhisamayālankara),「一切相智品」。
7. 史維仁:〈從客觀的立場理解宗教〉,《中華佛學學報》,第01期,臺北:中華佛學研究所,1987年,頁327-367,http://www.chibs.edu.tw。

文:鄭運蘭
2012-10-15

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